Suggested Readings

Here is a list of books and articles about the subjects discussed in this web site. Some express opinions very different from those of the author of this web site. All should be read with discernment and care (I John 4:1, Acts 17:11). The works in bold print are highly recommended. Some of these are quoted or cited elsewhere in this web site.


Alexander, James W. “Letters on the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, by Samuel Bayard, Esq. a Ruling Elder in the Presbyterian Congregation at Princeton, New Jersey.” Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (January 1840), 12, 1: 14-30.


Amerine, Maynard A. and Borg, Axel E. A Bibliography on Grapes, Wines, Other Alcoholic Beverages and Temperance: Works Published in the United States Before 1901. University of California Press, 1996.


Amouretti, M.-C. and Brun, J.-P., editors. Oil and Wine Production in the Mediterranean Area. Bulletin de Correspondence Hellenique: Supplement 26 Paris: Boccard, 1993.


Austin, Gregory A. Alcohol in Western Society from Antiquity to 1800: A Chronological History. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 1985.


Bacchiocchi, S. Wine in the Bible: A Biblical Study on the Use of Alcoholic Beverages. Berren Springs, Michigan: Biblical Perspective, 1989.


Badler, V.R.; McGovern, P.; and Michel, R.H. “Drink and Be Merry! Infrared Spectroscopy and Ancient Near Eastern Wine.” MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology 7 (1990): 25-36.


Bainton, R. “The Churches and Alcohol.” Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 6 (1945): 45-58.


Barker, William S., et al. “Study Committee on the Beverage Use of Alcohol Report.” Documents of Synod: Study Papers and Actions of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod—1965-1982. Lookout Mountain, Tennessee: Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod, 1982.


Blocker, Jack S. American Temperance Movements: Cycles of Reform. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1989.


Bromiley, G.W. Sacramental Teaching and Practice in the Reformation Churches. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1957.


Broshi, M. “Wine in Ancient Palestine—Introductory Notes.” Israel Museum Journal 3 (1984): 21-40.


Broshi, M. “The Diet of Palestine in the Roman Period—Introductory Notes.” Israel Museum Journal 5 (1986): 41-56.


Broshi, M. Bread, Wine, Walls and Scrolls. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001.


Büchsel, Friedrich. “γενημα.” Theological Dictionary of the New Testament 5: 162-6. Edited by G. Kittel and G. Friedrich. Grand Rapids: Wm B. Eerdmans, 1964. Translated from the German by G. W. Bromiley.


Carson, D.A. "Matthew." The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Revised Edition 9, 23-670. Edited by Tremper Longman III and David E. Garland. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010.


Chazanof, William. Welch's Grape Juice: From Corporation to Cooperative. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1977.


"Church Action on Temperance" Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (October 1871) 43, 4: 595-632.


Cohen, H. The Drunkenness of Noah. University  of Alabama Press, 1974.


Cohn-Sherbok, Dan. “A Jewish Note On τὸ ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας.” New Testament Studies 27 (1981):704-9.


Cox, J. From Vines to Wines. New   York: Harper & Row, 1985.


Dalman, Gustaf. Jesus-Jeshua. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1929. Translated by Paul P. Levertoff.


Dayagi-Mendels, M. Drink and Be Merry: Wine and Beer in Ancient Times. Jerusalem: Israel Museum, 1999.


DeBoer, Louis F. The Fruit of the Vine. The American Presbyterian Press, c 2000.


Easton, Burton Scott. “Wine, Wine Press.” The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 5:3086-88. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1957. Edited by James Orr.


Ewing, Charles Wesley. The Bible and Its Wines. Kalamazoo: Prohibition National Committee, Fifth Edition, 1967.


Feldman, W. “Alcohol in Ancient Jewish Literature.” British Journal of Inebriety 24:121-124, 1926.


Forbes, R.J. Studies In Ancient Technology. Volume 3. Leiden: Brill, 1955.


Frankel, R. The History of the Processing of Wine and Oil in Galilee in the Period of the Bible, the Mishna and the Talmud (Hebrew with English summary). Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University, 1984.


Frankel, R. Wine and Oil Production in Antiquity in Israel and Other Mediterranean Countries. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament/ASOR Monographs 10; Sheffield, England: Sheffield University Press, 1999.


Freedman, H., translator. Hebrew-English Edition of the Babylonian Talmud. London: The Soncino Press, 1967.


Frei, Hans. The Eclipse of Biblical Narrative:  Study in Eighteenth and Nineteeth Century Hermeneutics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974.


Gastineau, C.F.; Darby, W.J.; and Turner, T.B., editors. Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition. New York: Academic, 1979.


Gentry, Kenneth L. God Gave Wine: What the Bible Says About Alcohol. Lincoln, CA: Oakdown, 2001.


Gentry, Kenneth L. The Christian and Alcoholic Beverages: A Biblical Perspective. Baker, 1986.


Ginzberg, L. “A Response to the Question Whether Unfermented Wine May Be Used in Jewish Ceremonies.” American Jewish Yearbook 25: 401-425. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1923.


Goppelt, Leonhard. “ποτηριον.” Theological Dictionary of the New Testament 6: 148-60. Edited by G. Kittel and G. Friedrich. Grand Rapids: Wm B. Eerdmans, 1964. Translated from the German by G. W. Bromiley.


Grob, G., editor. Nineteenth Century Medical Attitudes Toward Alcohol Addiction. New York: Arno Press, 1981.


Hageman, Howard G. Pulpit and Table: Some Chapters in the History of Worship in the Reformed Churches. Richmond: John Knox Press, 1962.


Hammond, S.M. and Carr, J.G. “The Antimicrobial Activity of SO2—With Particular Reference to Fermented and Non-Fermented Fruit Juices.” Society for Applied Bacteriology Symposium Series 5:89-110, 1976.


Hawthorne, Gerald F. "Lord's Supper." The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible 3, 1099-1101. Edited by Merrill C. Tenney and Moises Silva. Grand Rapids: 2009.


Higgins, A.J.B. The Lord’s Supper in the New Testament. Studies in Biblical Theology, No. 6. Chicago: Alec R. Allenson, 1952.


Hodge, A.A. The Confession of Faith: A Handbook of Christian Doctrine Expounding the Westminster Confession. Banner of Truth, 1869.


Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.


Howell, James. Familiar Letters on Important Subjects. (circa 1635) Aberdeen: Douglass and Murray, 1753.


Jastrow, M.A. “Wine in The Pentateuchal Codes.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 33 (1913): 180-92.


Jeremias, Joachim. The Eucharistic Words of Jesus. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.


Jewett, Edward H. The Two-Wine Theory Discussed by Two Hundred and Eighty-Six Clergymen, on the Basis of “Communion Wine."  New York: E. Steiger & Co., 1888.


Jocz, Jakob. "Passover." The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible 4, 676-683. Edited by Merrill C. Tenney and Moises Silva. Grand Rapids: 2009.


Laverdiere, Eugene. The Eucharist in the New Testament and the Early Church. Collegeville,  Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1996.


Lawrence, John W. “Wine, the word, and the ancient world.” Evangelical Theological Society papers, 1986.


Lees, Frederic Richard and Burns, Dawson. The Temperance Bible-Commentary: Giving at One View Version, Criticism and Exposition, in Regard to All Passages of Holy Writ Bearing on 'Wine' and 'Strong Drink', or Illustrating the Principles of the Temperance Reformation. London: S.W. Partridge, 1868.


Lender, M. “Drunkenness as an Offense in early New England: A Study of ‘Puritan’ Attitudes.” Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 34 (1973): 353-366.


Lenski, R.C.H. The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel. Columbus, Ohio: The Wartburg Press, 1946.


Lenski, R.C.H. The Interpretation of St. Matthew’s Gospel. Columbus,  Ohio: The Wartburg Press, 1943.


Lowrie, Samuel T. The Lord’s Supper According to the Directory for Worship of the Presbyterian Church of the United States of America. Enlarged by An Argument Maintaining the Wine Proper for the Communion by Dunlop Moore. Philadelphia, 1888.


Lucia, S. A History of Wine as Therapy. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1963.


Maclean, John. “1. Bacchus. An Essay on the Nature, Causes, Effects, and Cure of Intemperance. By Ralph Barnes Grindrod. First American, from the third English edition, edited by Charles A. Lec, A.M., M.D. 2. Anti-Bacchus. An Essay on the Evils connected with the use of Intoxicating Drinks. By the Rev. B. Parsons, of Stroud, Gloucestershire, England. Revised and amended, with an Introduction, by the Rev. John Marsh, Cor. Secretary of the American Temperance Union.” The  Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (April 1841) 13, 2: 267-306.


Maclean, John. “Bacchus and Anti-Bacchus, concluded.” The  Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (October 1841) 13, 4: 471-523.


Mair, Alexander. Was the Lord’s Supper Instituted with Wine? Answered in the Affirmative. Edinburgh: William Oliphant and Company, 1875.


Marcus, Joel. “Passover and Last Supper Revisited.” New Testament Studies (2013) 59, 3: 303-324.


Marsden, George. "Everyone One's Own Interpreter? The Bible, Science and Authority in Mid-Nineteenth Century America."The Bible in America: Essays in Cultural History. Edited by Nathan O. Hatch and Mark A. Noll. Oxford University Press, 1982: 79-100.


Marshall, I. Howard. Last Supper and Lord’s Supper. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980.


Mather, Increase. Wo to Drunkards. Two sermons testifying against the sin of drunkenness: wherein the wofulness of that evil, and the mistery of all that are addicted to it, is discovered from the word of God. Cambridge, Massachusetts: 1673.


Mathison, Keith A. Given For You: Reclaiming Calvin’s Doctrine of the Lord’s Supper. Phillipsburg, New Jersey: P&R Publishing Company, 2002.


McGovern, P.; Fleming, S.; and Katz, S., editors. The Origins and Ancient History of Wine. Luxembourg: Gordon and Breach, 1995.


Merrill, John L. "The Bible and the American Temperance Movement: Text, Context, and Pretext." Harvard Theological Review (April 1988)  81, 2: 145-170.  


Milano, L. ed. Drinking in Ancient Societies. History of the Ancient Near East/Studies-6. Pardova: Sargon, 1994.


Moore, Dunlop. “VI. Sacramental Wine.” The Presbyterian Review (January 1882) 3: 78-107.


Neusner, Jacob. The Mishnah: A New Translation. New  Haven: Yale University, 1988.


Neusner, Jacob. The Talmud of Babylonia: An American Translation. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1993.


Neusner, Jacob. The Talmud of the Land of Israel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.


Patton, William. Bible Wines: Or, the Laws of Fermentation and the Wines of the Ancients. New York: National Temperance Society, 1871.


Pendleton, Othniel A. “Temperance and the Evangelical Churches.” Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society (March 1947) 25, 1: 14–45.


Raymond, I. The Teaching of the Early Church on the Use of Wine and Strong Drink. New York: Columbia University Press, 1927.


Rorabaugh, W.J. The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.


Rordorf, Willy. The Eucharist of the Early Christians. New York: Pueblo Publishing Company, 1978.


Schmidt, Leigh Eric. Holy Fairs: Scottish Communions and American Revivals in the Early Modern Period. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.


Schultz, A.C. "wine and strong drink."   

The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible 5:1083-87. Edited by Merrill C. Tenney and Moises Silva. Grand Rapids: 2009.


Segal, J.B. The Hebrew Passover: From the Earliest Times to A.D. 70. London Oriental Series, Vol. 12. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.


Seesemann, Heinrich. “οινος.” Theological Dictionary of the New Testament 5: 162-6. Edited by G. Kittel and G. Friedrich. Grand Rapids: Wm B. Eerdmans, 1964. Translated from the German by G. W. Bromiley.


Sprague, William B. “Danger of Being Over Wise : A Sermon Preached June 7th, 1835, in the Second Presbyterian Church in Albany.” (1835) Reprint by Naphtali Press, 1997.


Stuart, Moses. Scriptural View of the Wine Question in a Letter to the Rev. Dr. Nott. New York: Leavitt, Trow & Company, Printers, 1848.


Stuart, Moses. “The Lord’s Supper in the Corinthian Church: Remarks on I Cor. 11:17-34,” Bibliotheca Sacra, (1843): 499-531.


Stuart, Moses. The Scriptural View of the Wine Question. Dr. Lees, Truth Seeker Office, 1849. 


Stuart, Moses. “What is the duty of the churches, in regard to the use of fermented (alcoholic) wine, in celebrating the Lord’s Supper?” The Methodist Magazine and Quarterly Review (1835) 17:412-439.


Sigal, Phillip. “Another Note To 1 Corinthians 10.16.” New Testament Studies 29 (1983): 134-39.


Tait, Jennifer L. Woodruff. "Raise a Juice Box to the Temperance Movement: The teetotaling history behind America's favorite communion wine substitute." Christianity Today Online, March 2017. christianitytoday.com/history/2017/march/welch-grape-juice-history-temperance-movement.html


Tait, Jennifer L. Woodruff. The Poisoned Chalice: Eucharistic Grape Juice and Common-Sense Realism in Victorian Methodism. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2011.


Taylor, John. Drinke and Welcome. London: Anne Griffin, 1637.


“The Wine of the Bible, of Bible Lands, and of the Lord‘s Supper.” Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (October 1871) 43, 4: 564-595.


Thiselton, Anthony C. The First Epistle to the Corinthians. Grand Rapids: William B Eerdmans, 2000.


Thomann, G. Colonial Liquor Laws. New York: U.S. Brewers’ Association, 1887.


Walsh, Carey Ellen. The Fruit of the Vine: Viniculture In Ancient Israel. Harvard Semitic Monographs 60; Harvard Semitic Museum Publications, 2000.


West, Jim. Drinking Wine with Calvin and Luther: A History of Alcohol in the Church.


Williamson, G.I. Wine in the Bible & the Church. Philipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1985.


Yelton, Jeffrey P.   Wine in the Lord’s Supper: A Position Paper Presented to the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America. Osawatomie, Kansas, 2017. 


Younge, R. [R. Junius] The Drunkards Character. London: R. Badger, 1638